Back to Density
year: 2022 | typologie: mixed | status: concept
Back to Density
The design & construction system was created within the design of Paul Lechner with the supervision of Prof. Peter Haimerl and Clemens Bauder at the Zoomtown Institute at the University of Art and Design Linz. The starting point of this project is the motto "Density must be sexy" with the aim of creating spatial proximity of buildings and complexity in their physical form. Medieval and baroque urban structures in Europe serve as orientation points for the urban planning arrangement. In this urban structure, the game between narrowness and width is staged. This tension is achieved through the organically shaped narrow streets that alternate with wide squares. This tension has been lost and must be brought back through new architectural approaches.
The basic idea is that the robot only prints a free-form concrete formwork, otherwise the printing time would be too long and the machine time is a decisive cost factor. The concrete formwork can then be filled with different materials depending on the ecological, fire protection, static, soundproofing, energy etc. requirements. In the case of high static loads, it is advisable to use the CO2-neutral "Klark" concrete. With glass fibers, bending of reinforcement types by the robot can be saved. With this product, biochar is added to store CO2 in the walls. If the static requirements are lower, the excavation or rubble can also be used. This creates weight in terms of sound insulation. There are various possible solutions for the insulation level.
In architecture, many Japanese architects are concerned with this spatial proximity described above. The inspiration at the planning level was the "Sun God City" by Makato Sei Watanabe, who used the "light" parameter to design complex densities with urban spaces flooded with daylight. To do this, he relied heavily on digital methods. The following parameters and design rules for a spatially attractive urban structure have therefore been derived from this generated knowledge.
Lanes with a bend are needed in order not to feel the end and thereby allow for spatial surprises. A narrow alley is followed by a square that appears larger due to the previous narrowness. An urban planning unit of the building system is a square with external dimensions of 20 x 20 meters. The square fits well into the urban planning of the last 150 years. A public lane runs through this unit. A closed wall forms a multi-storey room joint with the alley. This opens up the building via an arcade and expands the alley space vertically. From the first floor, access must be transparent, e.g. through a stainless steel grating, in order to enable views into the alley and to get light in the depths. Additional light comes in through indentations on the outside of the building with windows facing the alley. The ground floor is used for public functions. This includes commercial areas such as restaurants, shops, but also offices and public facilities such as kindergartens. This is central so that there is no room for fear in the narrow alley. In addition to the central parameter of light, there are additional parameters that need to be clarified, such as the usage program, construction budget, surfaces, energy concept, building materials, plot size and much more.
In summary, the decisive advantage of the prefabricated 3D printed formwork is the reduced printing time and the scalability of the projects. While current on-site printing is limited in size and number of vendors, prefabricated 3D printing can be offered by many construction companies as well as other companies. Therefore, a quick implementation in the "conventional" construction processes is possible.